20Sep 2017
MPubmed

N Engl J Med. 2017 Sep 11. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1708322. [Epub ahead of print]

We enrolled 4093 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a fragility fracture and randomly assigned them in a 1:1 ratio to receive monthly subcutaneous romosozumab (210 mg) or weekly oral alendronate (70 mg) in a blinded fashion for 12 months, followed by open-label alendronate in both groups. The primary end points were the cumulative incidence of new vertebral fracture at 24 months and the cumulative incidence of clinical fracture (nonvertebral and symptomatic vertebral fracture) at the time of the primary analysis (after clinical fractures had been confirmed in ≥330 patients). Secondary end points included the incidences of nonvertebral and hip fracture at the time of the primary analysis. Serious cardiovascular adverse events, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical femoral fractures were adjudicated.

Results Over a period of 24 months, a 48% lower risk of new vertebral fractures was observed in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group (6.2% [127 of 2046 patients]) than in the alendronate-to-alendronate group (11.9% [243 of 2047 patients]) (P<0.001). Clinical fractures occurred in 198 of 2046 patients (9.7%) in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group versus 266 of 2047 patients (13.0%) in the alendronate-to-alendronate group, representing a 27% lower risk with romosozumab (P<0.001). The risk of nonvertebral fractures was lower by 19% in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group than in the alendronate-to-alendronate group (178 of 2046 patients [8.7%] vs. 217 of 2047 patients [10.6%]; P=0.04), and the risk of hip fracture was lower by 38% (41 of 2046 patients [2.0%] vs. 66 of 2047 patients [3.2%]; P=0.02). Overall adverse events and serious adverse events were balanced between the two groups. During year 1, positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular adverse events were observed more often with romosozumab than with alendronate (50 of 2040 patients [2.5%] vs. 38 of 2014 patients [1.9%]). During the open-label alendronate period, adjudicated events of osteonecrosis of the jaw (1 event each in the romosozumab-to-alendronate and alendronate-to-alendronate groups) and atypical femoral fracture (2 events and 4 events, respectively) were observed. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who were at high risk for fracture, romosozumab treatment for 12 months followed by alendronate resulted in a significantly lower risk of fracture than alendronate alone.

Saag KG, Petersen J, Brandi ML, Karaplis AC, Lorentzon M, Thomas T, Maddox J, Fan M, Meisner PD, Grauer A.

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20Sep 2017
MPubmed

J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Sep;32(9):1907-1914. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3177. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

The objective was to study the effect of parathyroidectomy (PTX) compared with observation (OBS) on bone mineral density (BMD) in g/cm2 and T-scores and on biochemical markers of bone turnover (P1NP and CTX-1) in a prospective randomized controlled study of patients with mild PHPT after 5 years of follow-up. Of 191 patients with mild PHPT randomized to either PTX or OBS, 145 patients remained for analysis after 5 years (110 with validated DXA scans).

A significant decrease in P1NP (p < 0.001) and CTX-1 (p < 0.001) was found in the PTX group only. A significant positive treatment effect of surgery compared with observation on BMD (g/cm2 ) was found for the lumbar spine (LS) (p = 0.011), the femoral neck (FN) (p < 0.001), the ultradistal radius (UDR) (p = 0.042), and for the total body (TB) (p < 0.001) but not for the radius 33% (Rad33), where BMD decreased significantly also in the PTX group (p = 0.012).

However, compared with baseline values, there was no significant BMD increase in the PTX group, except for the lumbar spine. In the OBS group, there was a significant decrease in BMD (g/cm2 ) for all compartments (FN, p < 0.001; Rad33, p = 0.001; UDR, p = 0.006; TB, p < 0.001) with the exception of the LS, where BMD was stable. In conclusion, parathyroidectomy improves BMD and observation leads to a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD after 5 years.

Lundstam K, Heck A, Godang K, Mollerup C, Baranowski M, Pernow Y, Aas T, Hessman O, Rosén T, Nordenström J, Jansson S, Hellström M, Bollerslev J; SIPH Study Group.

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20Ago 2017
MPubmed

2017 Aug 5;105:11-17. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2017.08.003. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

CONCLUSION:

There appears to be an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures after discontinuation of denosumab although strong evidence for such an effect and for measures to prevent the occurring bone loss is lacking. Clinicians and patients should be aware of this potential risk. Based on available data, a re-evaluation should be performed after 5years of denosumab treatment. Patients considered at high fracture risk should either continue denosumab therapy for up to 10years or be switched to an alternative treatment. For patients at low risk, a decision to discontinue denosumab could be made after 5years, but bisphosphonate therapy should be considered to reduce or prevent the rebound increase in bone turnover. However, since the optimal bisphosphonate regimen post-denosumab is currently unknown continuation of denosumab can also be considered until results from ongoing trials become available. Based on current data, denosumab should not be stopped without considering alternative treatment in order to prevent rapid BMD loss and a potential rebound in vertebral fracture risk.

Tsourdi E, Langdahl B, Cohen-Solal M, Aubry-Rozier B, Eriksen EF, Guañabens N, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Ralston SH, Eastell R, Zillikens MC.

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20Ago 2017
MPubmed

Nat Med. 2017 Sep;23(9):1072-1079. doi: 10.1038/nm.4385. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Aging is associated with increased cellular senescence, which is hypothesized to drive the eventual development of multiple comorbidities. Here we investigate a role for senescent cells in age-related bone loss through multiple approaches. In particular, we used either genetic (i.e., the INK-ATTAC ‘suicide’ transgene encoding an inducible caspase 8 expressed specifically in senescent cells) or pharmacological (i.e., ‘senolytic’ compounds) means to eliminate senescent cells. We also inhibited the production of the proinflammatory secretome of senescent cells using a JAK inhibitor (JAKi). In aged (20- to 22-month-old) mice with established bone loss, activation of the INK-ATTAC caspase 8 in senescent cells or treatment with senolytics or the JAKi for 2-4 months resulted in higher bone mass and strength and better bone microarchitecture than in vehicle-treated mice. The beneficial effects of targeting senescent cells were due to lower bone resorption with either maintained (trabecular) or higher (cortical) bone formation as compared to vehicle-treated mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that senescent-cell conditioned medium impaired osteoblast mineralization and enhanced osteoclast-progenitor survival, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these data establish a causal role for senescent cells in bone loss with aging, and demonstrate that targeting these cells has both anti-resorptive and anabolic effects on bone. Given that eliminating senescent cells and/or inhibiting their proinflammatory secretome also improves cardiovascular function, enhances insulin sensitivity, and reduces frailty, targeting this fundamental mechanism to prevent age-related bone loss suggests a novel treatment strategy not only for osteoporosis, but also for multiple age-related comorbidities.

 

Farr JN, Xu M, Weivoda MM, Monroe DG, Fraser DG, Onken JL, Negley BA, Sfeir JG, Ogrodnik MB, Hachfeld CM, LeBrasseur NK, Drake MT, Pignolo RJ, Pirtskhalava T, Tchkonia T, Oursler MJ, Kirkland JL, Khosla S

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24Jul 2017
MPubmed

The clinical significance of osteoporosis is in the occurrence of fractures and re-fractures. The main risk factor of sustaining a fracture is a previous one, but a recent fracture is a better fracture risk factor than fracture history. The role of the recency of fracture has been shown for both vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. This imminent risk is explained by both bone-related factors (underlying osteoporosis) and fall-related factors (including those related to postfracture care). Such a short-term increased risk has been shown also in patients initiating corticosteroids and in frail osteoporotic subjects with central nervous system (CNS) diseases or drugs targeting CNS, and thus a high risk of falls. Patients with an imminent (i.e. 2 years) risk of fracture or refracture should be identified in priority in order to receive an immediate treatment and a program of fall prevention.

Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jun;28(6):1765-1769. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-3976-5. Epub 2017 Feb 24. Review.

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Roux C, Briot K.

24Jul 2017
MPubmed

It has been suggested that normalization of bone turnover may improve clinical outcome in Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) by preventing complications such as fractures and the development of osteoarthritis. Here we investigated the long-term effects of a treatment strategy that aimed to normalize bone turnover in PDB with that of symptomatic treatment. The study group comprised 502 subjects who were enrolled into a 3-year extension of the Paget’s Disease: Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Symptomatic Management (PRISM) study. Intensive bisphosphonate therapy was continued in 270 of these subjects with the aim of normalizing bone turnover using zoledronic acid as the treatment of first choice. Symptomatic treatment continued in 232 subjects in whom bisphosphonates were only given for the treatment of bone pain. Intensive treatment was associated with a nonsignificant increase in fracture risk (hazard ratio = 1.90; 95% CI, 0.91 to 3.98; p = 0.087), orthopedic procedures (1.81; 95% CI, 0.71 to 4.61; p = 0.214), and serious adverse events (relative risk 1.28; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.42). We conclude that long-term intensive bisphosphonate therapy confers no clinical benefit over symptomatic therapy and is associated with a nonsignificant increase in the risk of fractures, orthopedic events, and serious adverse events.

J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Jun;32(6):1165-1173. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3066. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

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Tan A, Goodman K, Walker A, Hudson J, MacLennan GS, Selby PL, Fraser WD, Ralston SH; PRISM-EZ Trial Group.

24Jul 2017
MPubmed

Randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of a treatment for osteoporosis or low bone mineral density for adult men and reported fracture outcomes.

Twenty-four articles reporting results for 22 studies (including 4,868 male participants) met strict inclusion criteria. Fixed-effects meta-analyses using the Mantel-Haenszel method demonstrated significantly lower risk of vertebral fractures with alendronate (relative risk (RR) = 0.328, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.155-0.692) and risedronate (RR = 0.428, 95% CI = 0.245-0.746) but not with calcitonin (RR = 0.272, 95% CI = 0.046-1.608) or denosumab (RR = 0.256, 95% CI = 0.029-2.238) than in controls. For bisphosphonates as a treatment category, meta-analyses demonstrated significantly lower risk of vertebral fractures (RR = 0.368, 95% CI = 0.252-0.537) and nonvertebral fractures (RR = 0.604, 95% CI = 0.404-0.904) than in controls. The meta-analysis finding that bisphosphonates significantly reduce nonvertebral fracture risk was not robust to sensitivity analysis.

Bisphosphonates reduce the risk of vertebral and possibly nonvertebral fractures for men with osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonates for reducing nonvertebral fracture risk and the efficacy of nonbisphosphonates for reducing vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk in men with osteoporosis.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Mar;65(3):490-495. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14668. Epub 2016 Nov 7. Review.

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Nayak S, Greenspan SL.

24Jul 2017
MPubmed

This guideline updates the 2008 American College of Physicians (ACP) recommendations on treatment of low bone density and osteoporosis to prevent fractures in men and women. This guideline is endorsed by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The ACP Clinical Guidelines Committee based these recommendations on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials; systematic reviews; large observational studies (for adverse events); and case reports (for rare events) that were published between 2 January 2005 and 3 June 2011. The review was updated to July 2016 by using a machine-learning method, and a limited update to October 2016 was done. Clinical outcomes evaluated were fractures and adverse events. This guideline focuses on the comparative benefits and risks of short- and long-term pharmacologic treatments for low bone density, including pharmaceutical prescriptions, calcium, vitamin D, and estrogen. Evidence was graded according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system.

Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jun 6;166(11):818-839. doi: 10.7326/M15-1361. Epub 2017 May 9.

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Qaseem A, Forciea MA, McLean RM, Denberg TD; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians.

24Jul 2017
MPubmed

Daily subcutaneous (SC) injections of the investigational drug abaloparatide-SC (80 mcg) for 18 months significantly decrease the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture compared with placebo in postmenopausal women. We examined the efficacy of abaloparatide-SC as a function of baseline fracture risk, assessed using the FRAX tool.

A total of 821 women randomized to placebo and 824 women to abaloparatide-SC, mean age 69 years in both groups, were followed for up to 2 years. At baseline, the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (with BMD) ranged from 2.3% to 57.5% (mean 13.2%). Treatment with abaloparatide-SC was associated with a 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] 38-85%) decrease in major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) and a 43% (95% CI 9-64%) decrease in any clinical fracture compared with placebo. For all outcomes, hazard ratios tended to decrease (ie, greater efficacy) with increasing fracture probability. Whereas the interaction approached significance for the outcome of any fracture (p = 0.11), there was no statistically significant interaction for any of the fracture outcomes. Similar results were noted when FRAX probability was computed without BMD. Efficacy of abaloparatide-SC to decrease the risk of major osteoporotic fracture or any clinical fracture in postmenopausal women with low BMD and/or prior fracture appears independent of baseline fracture probability.

J Bone Miner Res. 2017 May 5. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3163. [Epub ahead of print.

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McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Oden A, Harvey NC, Jiang H, Modin S, Fitzpatrick L, Kanis JA.

21Jun 2017
MPubmed

This narrative review considers the key challenges facing healthcare professionals and policymakers responsible for providing care to populations in relation to bone health. These challenges broadly fall into four distinct themes: (1) case finding and management of individuals at high risk of fracture, (2) public awareness of osteoporosis and fragility fractures, (3) reimbursement and health system policy and (4) epidemiology of fracture in the developing world. In the developing world, robust epidemiological estimates of fracture incidence are required to inform policy development. As the aging of the baby boomer generation is upon us, this review provides a comprehensive analysis of how bone health can be improved worldwide for all.

Osteoporos Int. 2017 May;28(5):1507-1529. doi: 10.1007/s00198-016-3894-y.

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Harvey NC, McCloskey EV, Mitchell PJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Pierroz DD, Reginster JY, Rizzoli R, Cooper C, Kanis JA.